Abdul Malik bin Marwan (685-705)
The second Umayyad dynasty to ascend the throne after the Sufyan dynasty was the descendants of Marwan ibn Hukam (684-685) who had been the scribe of ‘Uthman. Marwan bin Hukam was banished from Madinah by the Holy Prophet (SAW) because he used to copy the Holy Prophet (SAW). Abu Bakr and Umar did not allow him to return to Madinah. Marj Rahat held the caliphate for only 9 months after the war and after his death his son Abdul Malik ascended the throne. After defeating Abdullah bin Zubair, he became the ruler of the entire Islamic kingdom. He is considered to be the real founder of the Umayyad family. Another feat of his era is the construction of the Dome of the Rock, a masterpiece of architecture
Walid bin Abdul Malik (705-715)
The reason for the conquests of Abdul Malik’s son Waleed is the great period of the Muslims during which Qutaybah ibn Muslim conquered Bukhara, Samarkand, Khiva and Kashgar, Muhammad ibn Qasim made Sindh part of the Umayyad government, the third army Musa ibn Nasir And Tariq bin Ziyad made it part of the Khilafah by invading Spain and Portugal in the west. The island of Blair in the western Mediterranean was also captured. Thus, during Waleed’s reign, the Umayyad rule spread from Kashgar to the Atlantic Ocean. During this time, a magnificent mosque called the Umayyad Mosque was built in the capital, Damascus. At that time, no power in the world could have imagined coming before the Islamic Khilafah
Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik (715-717)
Waleed was succeeded by his brother Sulayman bin Abdul Malik. Although he ruled for only two and a half years, many important events took place during his reign, including the tragic end of three famous generals of Walid’s time, Muhammad ibn Qasim, Musa ibn Nasir and Qutaybah ibn Muslim. The second major event of his time was the failed siege of Constantinople. The third and most important event of his caliphate is the succession of Umar bin Abdul Aziz.