Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan (661-680)
The founder of the Umayyad Empire was Amir Mu’awiyah, who converted to Islam with his family after his father, Abu Sufyan, converted to Islam on the occasion of the conquest of Mecca. He was one of the distinguished Companions and the Holy Prophet (sws) had given him the honor of being the scribe of revelation. [Citation needed] He became the governor of Damascus during the reign of Omar Farouk and became the governor of Syria throughout the reign of Uthman. This great position strengthened his power considerably and in the time of Hazrat Ali a conflict started with his fourth caliph and a great tragedy of Islam took place in the form of the battle of Safin. In fact, his empire began immediately after this war, while the formal beginning began with the resignation of Imam Hassan after the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali. The principles under which he ran the Khilafah were very different from the Righteous Khilafah. He ruled as a king in the Iranian and Roman style of personal government. On the contrary, if he is seen as a king, then in his time there will be less flaws and more virtues. The flaws of his time are, in fact, the natural flaws of the authoritarian system of monarchy, not the flaws of his caste. We find it difficult to determine their place in the history of Islam because they come immediately after the ideal era of the Rightly Guided Caliphate, which made their personality more beautiful than that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs in spite of many great deeds. He called the Syrian city of Damascus his capital, where he had served as governor before the caliphate. The most important events of his time include the conquests of Sindh, Turkestan and North Africa and the invasion of Constantinople.