The Umayyads were a prominent and wealthy tribe of the Quraysh. The same family ruled for almost a century after the Righteous Caliphate and brought Islamic conquests to a climax. Its borders extended to China on one side and Spain on the other. However, despite the collapse of the central caliphate, one of the family’s princes, Abdul Rahman al-Dakhil, succeeded in establishing a government in Spain. Where the Umayyad Empire lasted until 1492.
Of all the families of the Quraysh, the Bani Hashim and the Umayyads had a prominent position in terms of greatness and fame and worldly legitimacy. This was the reason that due to the tribal age, in the time of Jahiliyyah, sometimes the Banu Hashim would take the lead and sometimes the Umayyads. There was a dispute between the Bani Hashim and the Umayyads over the leadership of the Ka’bah. Eventually, with the intervention of influential people, administrative staff was divided between the two.
The ancestor of this family was Umayya bin Abdul Shams. The position of commander of the Quraysh was transferred from Bani Makhzoom to this family. In the time of Jahiliyyah, the position of commander-in-chief remained with Harb ibn Umayyah and then Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan converted to Islam during the conquest of Mecca and established the rule of the Umayyads through his son Amir Mu’awiyah.
The Umayyads performed great deeds during the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Under Omar Farouk, Amir Muawiyah became the governor of Damascus, and under Usman Ghani, he became the governor of the whole province of Syria. After the martyrdom of Uthman, in 35 AH, Amir Muawiyah raised his voice for Qisas Uthman and became independent from the central government. After the battle of Safin, the Muslim state was divided into two parts. Half of the caliphate that remained with Ali and half of the monarchy or kingdom that remained in the hands of Amir Muawiyah. After the martyrdom of Ali, Hassan himself resigned from the government, thus Amir Muawiyah became the king of the complete Islamic state